Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. [3][63] Some oil shales yield sulfur, ammonia, alumina, soda ash, uranium, and nahcolite as shale-oil extraction byproducts. Shale oil is a substitute for conventional crude oil; however, extracting shale oil from oil shale is more costly than … It may contain higher concentrations of olefins, oxygen, and nitrogen than conventional crude oil. Shale Meaning in Arabic: Searching meanings in Arabic can be beneficial for understanding the context in an efficient manner. [56], Most exploitation of oil shale involves mining followed by shipping elsewhere, after which one can burn the shale directly to generate electricity, or undertake further processing. Shale Oil: oil extracted from oil shale by heating.. Elapsed time: 73 ms. More features with our free app. [11] The most commonly used classification of oil shales, developed between 1987 and 1991 by Adrian C. Hutton, adapts petrographic terms from coal terminology. Upon cooling the vapor, the liquid shale oil—an unconventional oil—is separated from combustible oil-shale gas (the term shale gas can also refer to gas occurring naturally in shales). It is solid at room temperature and begins to melt above approximately 37 °C (99 °F), and its boiling point is above 370 °C (698 °F). English Dictionaries. Suggest an example. [8][40][45][46], As of 2009[update], 80% of oil shale used globally is extracted in Estonia, mainly due to the Oil-shale-fired power plants. Degradation of pyridines in the environment. oil shale n a fine-grained shale containing oil, which can be extracted by heating Related : Oil. English Collins Dictionary - English Definition & Thesaurus. All our dictionaries are bidirectional, meaning that you can look up words in both languages at the same time. Pronunciation /ˈSHāl ˌoil/ /ˈʃeɪl ˌɔɪl/ See synonyms for shale oil. These deposits have given rise to expectations of yielding at least 40 liters of shale oil per tonne of oil shale, using the Fischer Assay. HOUSTON/NEW YORK (Reuters) - U.S. oil and gas shares and drilling activity are edging higher, but a disastrous year for the energy industry means the go-go days of the shale boom may be gone for good. Britons of the Iron Age also used to polish it and form it into ornaments. In commercial grades of oil shale the ratio of organic matter to mineral matter lies approximately between 0.75:5 and 1.5:5. Opportunities and Challenges of Oil Shale Development", http://www.westernresearch.org/uploadedFiles/Energy_and_Environmental_Technology/Unconventional_Fuels/Oil_Shale/MercuryinOilShale.pdf, Driving It Home. Shale oil is a substitute for conventional crude oil; however, extracting shale oil from oil shale is more costly than the production of conventional crude oil both financially and in terms of its environmental impact. [58] While oil sands do originate from the biodegradation of oil, heat and pressure have not (yet) transformed the kerogen in oil shale into petroleum, that means that its maturation does not exceed early mesocatagenetic. Assuming an increase in output of 25 thousand barrels per day (4.0×10^3 m3/d) during each year after the start of commercial production, RAND predicts the costs would decline to $35–48 per barrel ($220–300/m3) within 12 years. [84] Experimental in situ conversion processes and carbon capture and storage technologies may reduce some of these concerns in the future, but at the same time they may cause other problems, including groundwater pollution. In addition to its use as a fuel, oil shale may also serve in the production of specialty carbon fibers, adsorbent carbons, carbon black, phenols, resins, glues, tanning agents, mastic, road bitumen, cement, bricks, construction and decorative blocks, soil-additives, fertilizers, rock-wool insulation, glass, and pharmaceutical products. Choosing the Right Path for Fueling North America's Transportation Future, "Chapter 4. [6][24], On 2 May 1982, known in some circles as "Black Sunday", Exxon canceled its US$5 billion Colony Shale Oil Project near Parachute, Colorado because of low oil-prices and increased expenses, laying off more than 2,000 workers and leaving a trail of home-foreclosures and small-business bankruptcies. shale definition: 1. a type of soft, grey rock, usually formed from clay that has become hard, that breaks easily…. [17][19] Some deposits contain significant fossils; Germany's Messel Pit has the status of a Unesco World Heritage Site. noun. [24][53] In order to run a profitable operation, the price of crude oil would need to remain above these levels. [88] In situ processing, according to one estimate, uses about one-tenth as much water. In 2003, an oil-shale development program restarted in the United States. Create an account and sign in to access this FREE content, With more seats made available, it should be a, The board is expected to meet today to consider a formal, He paid tribute to her in a very emotional. [91], Environmental activists, including members of Greenpeace, have organized strong protests against the oil shale industry. Shale meaning in Arabic has been searched 2267 times till 02 Oct, 2020. [16] Oil shale contains a lower percentage of organic matter than coal. shale play. Thanks for using this online dictionary, we have been helping millions of people improve their use of the TAMIL language with its free online services. 1. shale - a sedimentary rock formed by the deposition of successive layers of clay. Burgess Shale … Oil obtained from bituminous shale. Combustion and thermal processing generate waste material. [72] A 2004 report by the United States Department of Energy stated that both the Shell technology and technology used in the Stuart Oil Shale Project could be competitive at prices above $25 per barrel, and that the Viru Keemia Grupp expected full-scale production to be economical at prices above $18 per barrel ($130/m3). [1] Deposits of oil shale occur around the world, including major deposits in the United States. Download our English Dictionary apps - available for both iOS and Android. Translator. [70][71], In 2005, Royal Dutch Shell announced that its in-situ process could become competitive for oil prices over $30 per barrel ($190/m3). Modified entries © 2019 Explosives rubblize the oil-shale deposit. Oil as a strategic factor. [32] The first patent for extracting oil from oil shale was British Crown Patent 330 granted in 1694 to three persons named Martin Eele, Thomas Hancock and William Portlock who had "found a way to extract and make great quantities of pitch, tarr, and oyle out of a sort of stone. [1][3] Collins English Dictionary. Depositsof oil shale occur around the … [68] Above-ground retorting processes tended to yield a lower API gravity shale oil than the in situ processes. [20], Another classification, known as the van Krevelen diagram, assigns kerogen types, depending on the hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen content of oil shales' original organic matter. [23] The various attempts to develop oil shale deposits have succeeded only when the cost of shale-oil production in a given region comes in below the price of crude oil or its other substitutes. [6][7] In 2002, about 97% of air pollution, 86% of total waste and 23% of water pollution in Estonia came from the power industry, which uses oil shale as the main resource for its power production. I don’t know about you, but I’m already salivating at the prospect of Christmas food. English Dictionaries. ", "Shell's ingenious approach to oil shale is pretty slick", "New directions for shale oil:path to a secure new oil supply well into this century: on the example of Australia", "Co-liquefaction of kukersite oil shale and pine wood in supercritical water", "Kinetics of co-pyrolysis of Tarfaya (Morocco) oil shale with high-density polyethylene", American Association for the Advancement of Science, "Unconventional Oil and Gas Production. humic shale - shale that is rich in humic acids. Volume II Oil Shale Resources, Technology and Economics, "Process for the recovery of hydrocarbons from oil shale", "Map of oil shale mining history in Estonia", "Statement Of Daniel Yergin, Chairman of Cambridge Energy Research Associates, Before The Committee On Energy And Commerce/U.S. [9][17][18] The organic components of oil shale derive from a variety of organisms, such as the remains of algae, spores, pollen, plant cuticles and corky fragments of herbaceous and woody plants, and cellular debris from other aquatic and land plants. [22], As source rocks for most conventional oil reservoirs, oil shale deposits are found in all world oil provinces, although most of them are too deep to be exploited economically. In either case, the chemical process of pyrolysis converts the kerogen in the oil shale to shale oil (synthetic crude oil) and oil shale gas. [2], Humans have used oil shale as a fuel since prehistoric times, since it generally burns without any processing. [42][69] However, appropriate refining processes equivalent to hydrocracking can transform shale oil into a lighter-range hydrocarbon (gasoline). Shale oil is a substitute for conventional crude oil; however, extracting shale oil from oil shale is more costly than the production of conventional crude oil both financially and in terms of its environmental impact. [2] For comparison, at the same time the world's proven oil reserves are estimated to be 1.6976 trillion barrels (269.90 billion cubic metres). True in-situ processes do not involve mining the oil shale. "[12] Their common defining feature is low solubility in low-boiling organic solvents and generation of liquid organic products on thermal decomposition. Wordfinder. Modified in-situ processes involve removing part of the oil shale and bringing it to the surface for modified in-situ retorting in order to create permeability for gas flow in a rubble chimney. ... No results found for this meaning. Commonly detected examples include quinoline derivatives, pyridine, and various alkyl homologues of pyridine (picoline, lutidine). • OIL SHALE (noun) Sense 1. Other countries, such as Egypt, have also had plans to construct power plants fired by oil shale, while Canada and Turkey plan to burn oil shale along with coal for power generation. shale-oil - tamil meaning of நிலக் கீலெண்ணெய். Noun. shale-oil translation and definition in Tamil, related phrase, antonyms, synonyms, examples for shale-oil [62], Industry can use oil shale as a fuel for thermal power-plants, burning it (like coal) to drive steam turbines; some of these plants employ the resulting heat for district heating of homes and businesses. And best of all it's ad free, so sign up now and start using at home or in the classroom. [27] energy; fossil fuel; fracking; fuel; hydroelectric; nuclear; oil; power station; solar; … Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee. Example sentences with "shale play", translation memory. Oil shales differ from oil-bearing shales, shale deposits that contain petroleum (tight oil) that is sometimes produced from drilled wells. Conjugation Documents Grammar Dictionary Expressio. Most conversion technologies involve heating shale in the absence of oxygen to a temperature at which kerogen decomposes (pyrolyses) into gas, condensable oil, and a solid residue. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales). shale oil synonyms, shale oil pronunciation, shale oil translation, English dictionary definition of shale oil. See synonyms for shale oil. The Polish rapporteur, Adam Gierek, has … A Scientific-Technical Journal, "Characteristics of oil shales and shale-like rocks of known deposits and outcrops". This classification designates oil shales as terrestrial, lacustrine (lake-bottom-deposited), or marine (ocean bottom-deposited), based on the environment of the initial biomass deposit. Synthesis of the Symposium on Oil Shale. [3], Oil shale gains attention as a potential abundant source of oil whenever the price of crude oil rises. [45][57] The supply of oil in the first half of the 21st century, and its strategic implications for the U.S. "Global oil shale issues and perspectives. Well-explored deposits, potentially classifiable as reserves, include the Green River deposits in the western United States, the Tertiary deposits in Queensland, Australia, deposits in Sweden and Estonia, the El-Lajjun deposit in Jordan, and deposits in France, Germany, Brazil, China, southern Mongolia and Russia. Oil shales vary considerably in their mineral content, chemical composition, age, type of kerogen, and depositional history and not all oil shales would necessarily be classified as shales in the strict sense. [67] The arsenic content, for example, becomes an issue for Green River formation oil shale. "Resources" refers to all oil shale deposits, while "reserves", represents those deposits from which producers can extract oil shale economically using existing technology. The first pangs start early in December with the nostalgia rush I get upon spotting dinky net bags of mixed nuts for sale. All Years (type of petroleum) petróleo de esquisto loc nom m locución nominal masculina: Unidad léxica estable formada de dos o más palabras que funciona como sustantivo masculino ("ojo de buey", "agua mala"). Translation Spell check Synonyms Conjugation. It helps you understand the word Shale with comprehensive detail, no other web page in our knowledge can explain Shale better than this page. Meaning of shale oil in English: shale oil. Translation for 'shale' in the free English-Arabic dictionary and many other Arabic translations. ... Its production of shale oil and gas is likely to play a greater role in keeping Russia at bay than NATO troops on Europe’s eastern borders. [36], A critical measure of the viability of oil shale as an energy source lies in the ratio of the energy produced by the shale to the energy used in its mining and processing, a ratio known as "Energy Returned on Energy Invested" (EROEI). A report by EASAC to the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy of the European Parliament, "Importance of Future Oil Shale Industry Plans for Estonia", "Oil Shale Fired Power Plant - Enefit.jo", "Jordan moves ahead with $2.1 bln oil shale power plant", Strategic Significance of America's Oil Shale Resource. General composition of oil shales constitutes inorganic matrix, bitumens, and kerogen. [6][7] Estonia and China have well-established oil shale industries, and Brazil, Germany, and Russia also utilize oil shale.[8]. Several additional countries started assessing their reserves or had built experimental production plants, while others had phased out their oil shale industry. It cited a conversion ratio of 650 liters (170 U.S. gal; 140 imp gal) of oil per one ton of coal, as against 150 liters (40 U.S. gal; 33 imp gal) of shale oil per one ton of oil shale. Between 1946 and 1952, a marine type of Dictyonema shale served for uranium production in Sillamäe, Estonia, and between 1950 and 1989 Sweden used alum shale for the same purposes. Underground mining of oil shale, which removes less of the overlying material, employs the room-and-pillar method. Oil shale serves as the main fuel for power generation only in Estonia, where 90.3% of country's electrical generation in 2016 was produced from oil shale. [60][73], To increase efficiency when retorting oil shale, researchers have proposed and tested several co-pyrolysis processes. Shake Up: change the arrangement or position of.. Download Now. [41] In 1986, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 which among other things abolished the United States' Synthetic Liquid Fuels Program. These procedures remove most of the overlying material to expose the deposits of oil shale, and become practical when the deposits occur near the surface. [37] Fuel oil, lubricating oil and grease, and ammonium sulfate were also produced. [86], Water concerns are sensitive issues in arid regions, such as the western US and Israel's Negev Desert, where plans exist to expand oil-shale extraction despite a water shortage. shale oil n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. Oil shale definition is - a rock (such as shale) from which oil can be recovered by distillation. At the same time, the organic matter in oil shale has an atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon (H/C) approximately 1.2 to 1.8 times lower than for crude oil and about 1.5 to 3 times higher than for coals. Although resources of oil shale occur in many countries, only 33 countries possess known deposits of possible economic value . A 2016 estimate of global deposits set the total world resources of oil shale equivalent of 6.05 trillion barrels (962 billion cubic metres) of oil in place. shale play in English translation and definition "shale play", Dictionary English-English online. Last 100 years Download Wordinn Dictionary for PC. Open menu. Meaning of shale oil. SMART Vocabulary: related words and phrases. Common applications for paraffin wax include lubrication, electrical insulation, … Shale Oil in Detail. natural gas that is found in shale (= a type of soft, grey rock): They argued that the extraction of shale gas by fracking would cause huge environmental damage. Learn more. However, according to the IEA most of used energy can be provided by burning the spent shale or oil-shale gas.[80]. [57][88][89][90] A 2008 programmatic environmental impact statement issued by the US Bureau of Land Management stated that surface mining and retort operations produce 2 to 10 U.S. gallons (7.6 to 37.9 l; 1.7 to 8.3 imp gal) of waste water per 1 short ton (0.91 t) of processed oil shale. [95], For the scientific-technical journal, see, Organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen, Western Oil Shale Has a High Mercury Content. This usually takes place between 450 °C (842 °F) and 500 °C (932 °F). A fine-grained sedimentary rock of a thin, laminated, and often friable, structure. Oil shale definition, a black or dark-brown shale or siltstone rich in bitumens, from which shale oil is obtained by destructive distillation. Environmentalists oppose production and usage of oil shale, as it creates even more greenhouse gases than conventional fossil fuels. [42], The amount of economically recoverable oil shale is unknown. 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